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All you Want to Know about Cardiology

According to a leading health care executive search firm specializing in physician recruitment, the average salary for a cardiologist out of training in the United States may range from USD 110,000 to USD 225,000.

Demand for cardiologists is thriving

According to Cejka Search, a leading physician and health care executive search firm specializing in physician recruitment, the average salary for a cordiologist just out of training in the United States may range from $110,000 in San Francisco and New York to $225,000 in the Midwest, with bonuses dangling as much as another $25,000. Studies also show that seasoned cardiologists make well over $400,000 a year — more than twice what a family practice physician earns.

Lowdown on cardiology

Cardiology is an important medical specialty dealing with disorders of the heart where cardiologists provide diagnosis and treatment of heart failure, congenital heart defects and coronary artery disease. It comprises the study of complex types of heart diseases and procedures so a medical student has to have a laser-focus on a specialization depending on her skill sets. Most importantly, a cardiologist takes the internal medicine route, while a heart surgeon completes a surgical residency program, not an internal medicine residency as cardiologists do.

How does a cardiologist become certified?

In order to become certified, doctors who have completed a minimum of ten years of clinical and educational preparation must pass a rigorous two-day American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) administered exam. This exam tests not only knowledge and judgment, but also a cardiologist’s ability to provide competent care. Exams are held across the United States and registration is available online at

Separately, if you are seeking more specialization as an interventional cardiologist you have to passthe one-day Interventional Cardiology Certification (ICC), exam offered by the ABIM to become an interventional cardiologist.

How are cardiologists trained in the United States?

Cardiologists receive comprehensive education, encapsulating four years of medical school and three years of training in general internal medicine. After completing the internal medicine residency, a wannabe cardiologist explores one of many different types of cardiology fellowships which can last up to three years. After this, a cardiologist spends three or more years in specialized training.

What does a non-invasive cardiologist do?

A non-invasive cardiologist runs a practice helping patients to head-off potential heart problems. The average non-invasive cardiologist sees about 25-30 patients per day in the office. Non-invasive cardiologists don’t do procedures; they mainly perform diagnostic tests to spot early signs of heart problems. If the problem is treatable with diet or medication, the physician will prescribe the appropriate drug therapy or diet.

If the heart problem requires any type of surgical procedure, the non-invasive cardiologist will refer the patient to another doctor. Non-invasive cardiologists perform stress tests and electrocardiograms, popularly known as EKG’s to gage the state of your heart. Non-invasive cardiologists also carry out nuclear cardiology tests where a small amount of a radioactive dye, or tracer, is injected into a person’s bloodstream. This tracer makes it possible to take detailed pictures of the heart and the surrounding blood vessels. These nuclear images are used for diagnosing a number of heart problems.

Compensation: Seasoned non-invasive cardiologists earn roughly $400,000 per year in the United States, according to the Medical Group Management Association.

What does an invasive, non-interventional cardiologist do?

Invasive cardiologists are trained in a diagnostic procedure called cardiac catheterization, which is used to pinpoint blockages of the arteries. Broadly speaking, a non-invasive cardiologist’s time is divided between looking at patients in the clinic and the cath lab which is rigged with diagnostic imaging equipment used to support catheterization procedures.

If a heart blockage is discovered, a non-interventional cardiologist refers the patient to an expert in angioplasty or heart surgery.

Compensation: Experienced invasive, non-interventional cardiologists earn $454,000 annually, according to the Medical Group Management Association.

What does an interventional cardiologist do?

Most interventional cardiologists are licensed medical doctors who have seven years of post-medical school training. According to experts, interventional cardiology is a sub-specialty of internal medicine and requires a three-year internal medicine residency, followed by an interventional cardiology residency. According to the American College of Physicians, interventional cardiologists need one year of advanced training in catheterization, angioplasty, stents and Rotablator  alaser that scrapes off plaque in arteries. Interventional cardiologists spend long hours in hospitals surgically placing catheters and cardiac stents into heartsand performing balloon angioplasty to open up blocked arteries.

Compensation: Experienced interventional cardiologists earn about $545,000 annually, according to the Medical Group Management Association.

What are cardiac electrophysiologists?

There is no end to specialization in this sophisticated field yet another option for cardiologists is to complete an additional two-year fellowship in electrophysiology, which is the study of the bio-electrical impulses of the heart which control the pace of one’s heartbeat. When the electrical impulses are malfunctioning, it can cause a heart arrhythmia which can be fatal if left untreated. Cardiac electrophysiologists are trained to perform interventional cardiac electrophysiology studies as well implant surgical devices or pacemakers.

Compensation: Experienced cardiac electrophysiologists earn about $480,000 annually, says the Medical Group Management Association.



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03 July 2020

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19 February 2020

ali zeinali baravati
Dear Sir: To obtain a specialization in internal medicine and subsequently received specialty in gastrointestinal disease in the UK study how? Is it the correct way the studying for Specialty in General internal medicine and fellow ship : 1.MBBS 2.MRCP 3.CCST ( General internal medicine ) 4.CCST ( Gastroenterology ) 5.CCST (Subspecialist in hepatic diseases ) is correct . Please help me about this . I am impatiently waiting for your response. Thank you very much. Sincerely: doctor Zeinali
04 January 2013

Can I study cardiology in Cuba?.are there any bussaries or sholarships awarded to students that want to study cardiology?
05 December 2012

can i get good univerity in U.K. that deal with cardiology
29 December 2011

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